Higher Ed: Virtualizing Banner Unified Digital Campus with VMware

Banner Unified Digital Campus (Banner UDC) is the most used administrative suite of applications specific to higher education. A specially crafted Google search shows almost 30,000 different universities running Banner UDC!

If you are wondering if Banner UDC can be virtualized the answer is YES. VMware’s website has very little information about virtualizing Banner UDC… there’ just info about virtualizing Banner Xtender, the integrated document imaging solution. Many sysadmins will have difficulty finding a definitive answer to the “Are we supported on VMware?”  question.

Get an account with the Sungard Commons and Sungard Connect and see for yourself. You’ll find Sungard has this to say in FAQ 1-44BOB8:

Banner UDC clients can realize significant cost benefits through the use of virtualization technologies.  Virtualization allows for server consolidation, with potential savings in hardware acquisition and maintenance, operating costs, and administrative time. Virtualization can also play an important role in High Availability and Disaster Recovery strategies. Banner UDC applications are supported with two software solutions, Sun Solaris Containers and VMware ESX Server. Also supported are hardware partitions offered by Solaris Logical Domains (LDoms), HP-UX Virtual Partitions (vPars),  and AIX Logical Partitions (LPARs).  Virtualization is a very dynamic field and additional solutions will be supported in accordance with market demand.

The SunGard Higher Education Support Center will not require clients to replicate every Banner UDC issue in a native supported environment. If we have reason to believe that virtualization is part of the problem, we may ask clients to independently verify that the problem exists in a native environment.  We will also work with virtualization vendors to jointly diagnose and resolve issues. The Support Center is not able to accept virtual images from clients to use as debugging aids. Such images may contain software for which SunGard Higher Education is not licensed.

The note specifically says the Banner Database server is not recommended on vSphere, citing Metalink 249212.1. Google it for yourself: we have found that the Oracle support is just perpetuating fear, uncertainty, and doubt.  Aside from Google, another good place to research is  Sungard’s BORACLE mailing list (customers only) – you’ll find there are several Banner UDC customers large and small running their full suite (including the database) VMware vSphere with no issues.

The support note also mentions ‘Other Third-Party Products’. Many Banner UDC clients use Cognos for reporting/BI. IBM offers Cognos support on VMware. There’s also Luminis, the most popular web portal with Banner UDC, which is also supported as a virtual machine. For more information, see documents titled “Luminis Platform 5” and “Luminis Platform Virtualization”.

As for our organization, we have been running a couple of parts of the Banner UDC install in virtual machines from the beginning: eVisions Intellecheck and Banner ePrint have given zero problems with regard to virtualization.

Our journey to full suite virtualization started out by performing a large Banner UDC upgrade (Banner 7 to Banner 8) with vSphere. The testing of the upgrade was successful (and so the real upgrade) AND we obtained Oracle DBA buy-in to running Banner UDC on virtual machines.

Since then, the staging environment’s application and database servers are on virtual machines and no one’s noticed.  Once the staging environment pilot is done, the next step is to work toward moving our production servers to vSphere.

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PowerCLI: nSeries Guest OS Timeout Scripts

First post in months. Hopefully I’ll have more to post on in the next few weeks. Onto more pressing issues…

“The N Series VMware ESX Host Utilities” have a couple of ISOs that have scripts for tweaking the guest OS disk timeouts.

From the IBM Redbook IBM System Storage N series and VMware vSphere Storage Best Practices:

This is a job for PowerCLI. Inspired from Jase’s script.

Considerations for Linux: Use an account that can do passwordless sudo (or root- you don’t have to have root SSH enabled for Invoke-VMscript).

# Requires VMware Tools to be installed on each guest.
$winisoName = "[datastore] path/to/windows_gos_timeout.iso"
$linisoName = "[datastore] path/to/linux_gos_timeout.iso"
# Get Windows Guest Credentials
Write-Host "Enter Windows Credentials"
$wincred = Get-Credential
# Get Linux Guest Credentials
Write-Host "Enter Linux Credentials"
$lincred = Get-Credential
# Get ESX Host Creds
Write-Host "Enter ESX  Credentials"
$esxcred = Get-Credential
# Get ALL VMs
$vms = Get-VM
foreach($vms as $vm){
	$driveName = "CD/DVD Drive 1"
	$vm = $vm | Get-View
	$dev = $vm.Config.Hardware.Device | where {$_.DeviceInfo.Label -eq $driveName}

	$spec = New-Object VMware.Vim.VirtualMachineConfigSpec
	$spec.deviceChange = New-Object VMware.Vim.VirtualDeviceConfigSpec[] (1)
	$spec.deviceChange[0] = New-Object VMware.Vim.VirtualDeviceConfigSpec
	$spec.deviceChange[0].operation = "edit"
	$spec.deviceChange[0].device = $dev
	$spec.deviceChange[0].device.backing = New-Object VMware.Vim.VirtualCdromIsoBackingInfo
	$spec.deviceChange[0].device.backing.fileName = $isoName

	$vm.ReconfigVM_Task($spec)

	$winscript = "regedit /s windows_gos_timeout.reg"
	$linscript = "sudo /media/cdrom/linux_gos_timeout-install.sh"

	if($vm.Guest.OSFullName -match "Microsoft") {
			Invoke-VMScript -HostCredentials $esxcred -GuestCredentials -ScriptText $winscript
	}
	else if($vm.Guest.OSFullName -match "Linux") {
			Invoke-VMScript -HostCredentials $esxcred -GuestCredentials -ScriptText $linscript
	}
}

Back to work.

VMware Expert System with PowerCLI and Excel

This post is a writeup of a project for a master’s class in Decision Support Systems at Murray State.  This is my first dive into VMware PowerCLI aside from some one shots. All feedback is welcome.

Our Problems

Problem 1: Servers are not being virtualized due to a decentralized procurement process

A decentralized server procurement process presents many problems to an organization. There are many gains with standardizing OS/hardware platforms.

Problem 2: Servers are not being virtualized because knowledge is required to make “Virtualize/Don’t Virtualze” decision

The benefits of server virtualization are easy to explain and are a part of our culture. However, the organization has not adopted a “virtualize first” mentality. There is still a lack of stakeholder understanding with regards to virtualization.

Due to lack of knowledge, ROI is not maximized. This knowledge exists in two places – the virtual infrastructure itself and as tacit knowledge with the VMware administrator.

PROBLEM ANALYSIS

Problem 1: Servers are not being virtualized due to a decentralized procurement process
This problem is outside of the scope of the CIS645 class. We’re working on it.

Problem 2: Servers are not being virtualized because knowledge is required to make “Virtualize/Don’t Virtualze” decision

Problem 2 has two major parts.

CAPACITY – CAN OUR VIRTUAL INFRASTRUCTURE SUPPORT THIS APPLICATION?

This question has historically been answered heuristically with ball park figures. Manually gathering current storage and RAM capacity data too time consuming.

CANDIDACY – BASED ON SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS AND INDUSTRY KNOWLEDGE, IS VIRTUALIZATION SUITABLE FOR THIS APPLICATION?

This is the harder question. Typically you’ll hear consultants say “it depends”. Answering this question usually involves a phone call with the VMware administrator. The conversation is series of questions from the administrator to the stakeholder.

RECOMMENDATION

When the two questions have been answered, a recommendation of Virtualize/Don’t Virtualize is made. If a Virtualize decision is made, the VMware administrator must find the optimal storage unit to deploy to and coordinate the deployment with the stakeholder.

SOLUTION DESIGN

USER INTERFACE

The users of this system are already familiar with Excel and would prefer to utilize Excel’s familiarity and What-If scenario planning.

What if we added another 2TB of storage?
What if we upgraded our RAM?
What if we didn’t have to have the license dongle?

Excel quickly enables these questions to be answered. A normal ‘GUI’ application would take more time to develop and would not invite queries of an ad-hoc nature.

CAPACITY

Capacity data resides at several levels: the virtual machine itself, the host, and the data store. The data is put into Excel using VMware’s PowerCLI. PowerCLI is a Windows PowerShell snap-in that integrates with any VMware Virtual Infrastructure. Windows PowerShell also integrates nicely with Excel.
Here are the steps to capacity gathering with the VMware Expert System:

  • Open the Excel Spreadsheet
  • Clear previously gathered data
  • Connect to a vCenter Server
  • Gather datastore information
  • Gather host information
  • Gather virtual machine information
  • Write values to ‘Capacity’ Worksheet
  • Write values to ‘New Virtual Machine’ Worksheet
  • Save Excel Spreadsheet
  • Clean up and quit Excel

CANDIDACY

The user of the VMware Expert System will answer a series of questions to determine system candidacy. Through knowledge capture, the conversation with the VMware Administrator does not need to take place. The knowledge is generally accepted by a community of VMware experts.

RECOMMENDATION

After answering the capacity and candidacy questions, the user receives a final recommendation. The recommendation is only “Virtualize” if capacity is available and candidacy is met.

The interface also displays reasons why a machine is not suitable for virtualization to enable What-If analysis.

DECISION TREE

Modified from VI:OPS P2V Decision Tree

RUNNING THE VMWARE EXPERT SYSTEM

PREREQUISITES

STEPS TO RUN THE VMWARE EXPERT SYSTEM

  • Download and extract vmware-expert-system.zip
  • Rename launch.tab to launch.bat
  • Edit launch.bat, line 2
    • Substitute your path to updatespreadsheet.ps1 where you see “C:\users\%username%\Documents\cis645\Project\vmware_expert_system\updatespreadsheet.ps1”, make sure the path is in quotation marks
  • Edit updatespreadsheet.ps1, line 11
    • Substitute your path to vmware_expert_system.xlsm where you see “C:\users\%username%\Documents\cis645\Project\vmware_expert_system\vwmare_expert_system.xlsm”, make sure the path is in quotation marks
  • Run click ‘launch.bat’
  • A screen similar to this will appear:
  • Launch the spreadsheet “vmware_expert_system.xlsm” and enable macros
  • Enter system requirements
  • Press “Send Work Order”

EXAMPLE SYSTEM: NEW WEB SERVER

  • Enter the hostname: newwebserver
    • The hostname must not be already existing and must be a valid hostname (“The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)”)
  • Enter a functional contact: Andy Hill
  • Enter a staff contact: Andy Hill
  • Select an Operating System: Windows Server 2003
  • Enter a storage requirement: 20 GB
    • The minimum storage requirement must be >8 GB and less than the size of a maximum single disk
  • Enter a RAM requirement: 1024 MB
    • The minimum RAM requirement is 256MB and must be less than one host and still tolerant of a host failure
  • Number of Processors: 1
    • Must be numeric, greater than or equal to 1, less than or equal to 4
  • Number of NICs: 1
    • Must be numeric, greater than or equal to 1, less than or equal to 4
  • Average CPU utilization: 5%
    • Must be numeric, between 0 and 1, if 4 processors are used average utilization cannot exceed 50%
  • Average RAM utilization: 256 MB
    • Must not exceed 8GB
  • Average NIC utilization: 1 MBps
    • Must not exceed 100MBps
  • Maximum Disk IO: 10 MBps
    • Must not exceed 100MBps
  • Answer TRUE/FALSE to the following hardware components
    • Modems: FALSE
    • Fax Cards: FALSE
    • License Dongles: FALSE
    • Security Dongles: FALSE
    • Hardware Encryption: FALSE
  • Answer TRUE/FALSE to Vendor Support: TRUE
  • Recommendation: Virtualize!

ADD NEW SUPPORTED GUEST OS

VMware’s Guest OS Compatibility Guide (“VMware, Inc.”) is exhaustive and does not line up with Murray State University’s environment. The drop-down list is populated from a hidden worksheet within Excel. For our environment, we limited this drop down to Guests OSes which have regularly maintained templates.

To add, delete, or change an entry in the operating system list follow these steps:

  1. Toward the bottom of Excel, right click the current worksheet
  2. From the context menu, select “Unhide…”
  3. From the Unhide Window, Select ‘Supported Guest Operating Systems’ and press OK
  4. Navigate to the ‘Supported Guest Operating Systems’ Worksheet. Make changes Column A. Only changes in Column A will be reflected in the spreadsheet. Save your changes.

Future Considerations

Future versions of this project will include:
  • Support for advanced disk layouts
  • Get-Template feeding the ‘Supported Guest OS’ worksheet
  • 1 click ‘deploy from template’
  • Support for tiered storage
  • Graphs of compute resources by host and virtual machine

# VMware Expert System Capacity Gathering
# v0.2
# by Andy Hill
# https://virtualandy.wordpress.com

# gathering data for VMware capacity
$viserver = Read-Host "Enter a vCenter server";
Write-Host "Gathering Excel data...1/8"

$excel = new-object -comobject Excel.Application
# Edit this value to the location of your vmware_expert_system.xlsm
$excelfile = $excel.workbooks.open("C:\Users\andy.hill\Documents\cis645\Project\vmware_expert_system\vmware_expert_system.xlsm")
$worksheet = $excelfile.worksheets.item(3) # Select Capacity Worksheet

Write-Host "Clearing existing capacity data...2/8"
# Clear existing data
$worksheet.Range("A5:N65000").Clear() | out-null
$worksheet.cells.item(1,2) = $viserver

Write-Host "Connecting to $viserver, this may take a moment...3/8"
connect-viserver $viserver -erroraction stop -WarningAction SilentlyContinue | out-null

# datastore information
Write-Host "Gathering disk information...4/8"
$i = 5
$disks = get-datastore
foreach($disk in $disks) {
	$worksheet.cells.item($i, 1) = $disk.name;
	$worksheet.cells.item($i, 2) = $disk.freespaceMB;
	$worksheet.cells.item($i, 3) = $disk.capacityMB;
	$i++;
}
$disk_count = $i;

$i = 5
Write-Host "Gathering host information...5/8"
# host information
Get-VMHost | %{Get-View $_.ID} | %{
	$esx = "" | select Name, NumCpuPackages, NumCpuCores, Hz, Memory
	$esx.NumCpuPackages = $_.Hardware.CpuInfo.NumCpuPackages
	$esx.NumCpuCores = $_.Hardware.CpuInfo.NumCpuCores
	$esx.Hz = $_.Hardware.CpuInfo.Hz
	$esx.Memory = $_.Hardware.MemorySize
	$esx.Name = $_.Name

	$worksheet.cells.item($i, 6) = $esx.Name
	$worksheet.cells.item($i, 7) = $esx.NumCpuPackages
	$worksheet.cells.item($i, 8) = $esx.NumCpuCores
	$worksheet.cells.item($i, 9) = $esx.hz / 1000 / 1000
	$worksheet.cells.item($i, 10) = $esx.memory / 1024 / 1024;
	$i++;
}
$host_count = $i;

# vm information
$i = 5
Write-Host "Gathering virtual machine information...6/8"

get-vm | % {
	$vm = "" | select name, MemoryMB
	$worksheet.cells.item($i, 13) = $_.Name
	$worksheet.cells.item($i, 14) = $_.MemoryMB
	$i++;
}

# Create the totals and amount utilized
$worksheet.cells.item(($i+1),13) = "Total"
$worksheet.cells.item(($i+1),14) = "=sum(N6:N" + $i + ")"
$vm_count = $i;

Write-Host "Writing values to Excel Spreadsheet...7/8"
#add some formatting
$worksheet.cells.item(($disk_count + 2), 1) = "Datastore with most free space";
$worksheet.cells.item(($disk_count + 3), 1) = "Memory (MB) Available";
$worksheet.cells.item(($disk_count + 4), 1) = "Memory Utilization %";
$worksheet.cells.item(($disk_count + 5), 1) = "Storage Available (GB)";
$worksheet.cells.item(($disk_count + 6), 1) = "Storage Utilization %";
$worksheet.cells.item(($disk_count + 7), 1) = "Most Storage Available on a datastore (GB)";

# add the formulas
$worksheet.cells.item(($disk_count + 2), 2) = "=INDEX((A5:A" + $disk_count + "),MATCH(MAX(B5:B" + $disk_count + "),B5:B" + $disk_count + ",0))";
$worksheet.cells.item(($disk_count + 3), 2) = "=SUM(J5:J" + $host_count + ") - N" + ($vm_count+1);
$worksheet.cells.item(($disk_count + 4), 2) = "=N" + ($vm_count+1) + "/SUM(J5:J" + ($host_count-1) + ")"; # n-1 hosts for HA failover
$worksheet.cells.item(($disk_count + 5), 2) = "=SUM(B5:B" + $disk_count + ")/1024";
$worksheet.cells.item(($disk_count + 6), 2) = "=1-SUM(B5:B" + $disk_count + ")/SUM(C5:C" + $disk_count + ")";
$worksheet.cells.item(($disk_count + 7), 2) = "=INDEX((B5:B" + $disk_count + "),MATCH(MAX(B5:B" + $disk_count + "),B5:B" + $disk_count + ",0))/1024";

Write-Host "Saving Excel Spreadsheet...8/8";
# Select main worksheet
$worksheet = $excelfile.worksheets.item(1);
# Update the 'new virtual machine' worksheet with capacity data
$worksheet.cells.item(8,4) = "=Capacity!B" + ($disk_count + 5) + "-'New Virtual Machine'!B8";
$worksheet.cells.item(8,7) = "=MAX(Capacity!B5:" + "B" + ($disk_count - 1) + ")/1024";
$worksheet.cells.item(9,4) = "=(Capacity!B" + ($disk_count +3) + ")/1024";
$worksheet.cells.item(29,2) = "=Capacity!B" + ($disk_count + 2);
$excel.activeworkbook.save();
$excel.quit();

ESX 3.5 U4 Kickstart for IBM xSeries and QLA4050

This was our shop’s first real dive into kickstarts. The material I read in Visible Ops really emphasized track able/repeatable processes for setting up systems. One great way to do that is through kickstart scripts and some kind of version control system. We used Subversion.

I’ve edited a few parts out of this, but I spent a while finding several kickstart scripts that accomplished parts of what we needed. I highly customized one for our environment.

What it does:

  • Configures licensing for the host using a license server
  • Configures NTP
  • Adds users, expires their accounts and configures a sudo group
  • MOTD
  • Configures NICs and VMware ESX Networking
  • Creates a script to download and install IBM iSCSI Host Utilities Kit
  • Creates a script to download and install QLA4050C BIOS and firmware updates

Thanks to Leo’s ESX 3.5 Kickstart script – part 3.

You will need to download IBM iSCSI Host Utilities Kit from IBM and the QLA4050C BIOS and Firmware from QLogic to a server with scp capabilities.

# make sure this file is UNIX formatted so the line breaks can be handled.
install
lang en_US.UTF-8
langsupport –default en_US.UTF-8
keyboard us
mouse genericwheelps/2 –device psaux
skipx
network –device eth0 –bootproto static –ip –netmask –gateway –nameserver , –hostname –addvmportgroup=0 –vlanid=0
# Encrypted root password
rootpw –iscrypted firewall –enabled
authconfig –enableshadow –enablemd5
timezone America/Chicago
bootloader –location=mbr
# The following is the partition information you requested
# Note that any partitions you deleted are not expressed
# here so unless you clear all partitions first, this is
# not guaranteed to work
vmaccepteula
# test license server
vmlicense –mode=server –server=27000@ –edition=esxFull –features=vsmp,backup
reboot
firewall –enable
clearpart –exceptvmfs –drives=sda
part /boot –fstype ext3 –size=100 –ondisk=sda
part / –fstype ext3 –size=1800 –grow –maxsize=5000 –ondisk=sda
part swap –size=544 –grow –maxsize=544 –ondisk=sda
part /var/log –fstype ext3 –size=100 –grow –ondisk=sda

%packages
grub
@base

%post
cat > /etc/rc.d/rc3.d/S11servercfg << EOF #Configure NTP echo "Configuring NTP" chkconfig --level 345 ntpd on echo "restrict kod nomodify notrap noquery nopeer" > /etc/ntp.conf
echo “restrict 127.0.0.1” >> /etc/ntp.conf
echo “server >> /etc/ntp.conf
echo “driftfile /var/lib/ntp/drift” >> /etc/ntp.conf
echo ” > /etc/ntp/step-tickers
service ntpd start

#Adding users with default password “changeme” generated with `openssl passwd changeme`

echo “Adding users”
adduser -p MKgX23V6snwoc
chage -d 0 -M 99999
adduser -p MKgX23V6snwoc
chage -d 0 -M 99999
adduser -p MKgX23V6snwoc
chage -d 0 -M 99999
usermod -G wheel user
usermod -G wheel user2
usermod -G wheel user3
echo “Done adding users”

echo “Configuring sudoers”
cat > /etc/sudoers << SUDO # sudoers file. # # This file MUST be edited with the 'visudo' command as root. # # See the sudoers man page for the details on how to write a sudoers file. # # Host alias specification # User alias specification # Cmnd alias specification # Defaults specification Defaults syslog=local2 # User privilege specification root ALL=(ALL) ALL # Uncomment to allow people in group wheel to run all commands %wheel ALL=(ALL) ALL # Same thing without a password # %wheel ALL=(ALL) NOPASSWD: ALL # Samples # %users ALL=/sbin/mount /cdrom,/sbin/umount /cdrom # %users localhost=/sbin/shutdown -h now SUDO echo "Done configuring sudoers" echo "Configuring MOTD" echo "MOTD HERE" > /etc/motd
echo “Done configuring MOTD”

echo “Configuring hosts file”
echo “ip hostname.fqdn hostname” >> /etc/hosts
echo “Done configuring hosts file”

# we have 6 nics
echo “Configuring NIC duplex/speeds”
/usr/sbin/esxcfg-nics -s 1000 -d full vmnic0
/usr/sbin/esxcfg-nics -s 1000 -d full vmnic1
/usr/sbin/esxcfg-nics -s 1000 -d full vmnic2
/usr/sbin/esxcfg-nics -s 1000 -d full vmnic3
/usr/sbin/esxcfg-nics -s 1000 -d full vmnic4
/usr/sbin/esxcfg-nics -s 1000 -d full vmnic5
echo “Configuring NIC duplex/speeds”

echo “Configuring networking”
# VMNetwork
/usr/sbin/esxcfg-vswitch -a vSwitch1
# Blind Switch
/usr/sbin/esxcfg-vswitch -a vSwitch2
# VMkernel
/usr/sbin/esxcfg-vswitch -a vSwitch3
# Add NIC 1 and 3 to vSwitch1 (VMNetwork)
/usr/sbin/esxcfg-vswitch -L vmnic1 vSwitch1
/usr/sbin/esxcfg-vswitch -L vmnic3 vSwitch1
# Add NIC 2 to vSwitch0 (Service Console, already contains NIC 0)
/usr/sbin/esxcfg-vswitch -L vmnic2 vSwitch0
# Add NIC 4 and 5 to vSwitch3 (VMkernel)
/usr/sbin/esxcfg-vswitch -L vmnic4 vSwitch3
/usr/sbin/esxcfg-vswitch -L vmnic5 vSwitch3
# Give appropriate port group labels to vSwitches
/usr/sbin/esxcfg-vswitch -A “Blind Switch” vSwitch2
/usr/sbin/esxcfg-vswitch -A “VMkernel” vSwitch3
/usr/sbin/esxcfg-vswitch -A “VMNetwork” vSwitch1
# Configure IP addresses for service console and VMkernel
/usr/sbin/esxcfg-vswif -i -n 255.255.255.0 vswif0
/usr/sbin/esxcfg-vmknic -a -i -n 255.255.255.0 VMotion
/usr/sbin/esxcfg-vswif -E
# Enable SSH Client through firewall
/usr/sbin/esxcfg-firewall -e sshClient
echo “Done configuring networking”

# generate script to download/install HUK, make it executable
echo “Generating host utilities download/install script”
cat > /root/huk-install.sh << HUK cd /home/user/ scp user@host:/home/user/ibm_iscsi_esx_host_utilities_3_1.tar.gz . tar -zxf ibm_iscsi_esx_host_utilities_3_1.tar.gz cd ibm_iscsi_esx_host_utilities_3_1 ./install echo "Done generating host utilities download/install script" HUK chmod a+x /root/huk-install.sh # generate script to download/install iscli and firmware/BIOS updates, make it executable echo "Generating iscli and firmware update script" cat > /root/iscli-script.sh << ISCLI cd /home/user/ scp user@host:/home/user/iscli-1.2.00-15_linux_i386.install.tar.gz user@host:/home/user/ql4022rm.BIN user@host:/home/user/VER4032_03_00_01_53.zip . tar -xvzf iscli-1.2.00-15_linux_i386.install.tar.gz unzip VER4032_03_00_01_53.zip chmod +x iscli.dkms.install.sh ./iscli.dkms.install.sh install # HBA 0 /usr/local/bin/iscli -f 0 /home/user/qla4022.dl sleep 5 /usr/local/bin/iscli -bootcode 0 /home/user/ql4022rm.BIN sleep 5 # HBA 1 /usr/local/bin/iscli -f 1 /home/user/qla4022.dl sleep 5 /usr/local/bin/iscli -bootcode 1 /home/user/ql4022rm.BIN sleep 5 reboot ISCLI echo "Done generating iscli and firmware script" # Moves this file so it will not be called on next host boot mv /etc/rc.d/rc3.d/S11servercfg /root/unsw-setup.sh rm -f /root/system-info EOF /bin/chmod a+x /etc/rc.d/rc3.d/S11servercfg [/sourcecode]

Upgrading ESX 3.5 to ESX 3.5 U4 and Virtual Center 2.5 to vCenter 2.5 U4

Here’s the ‘script’ read from while doing our ESX upgrades:

In general:

  • Do lots of up front work with kickstarts and analysis

Each ESX Host

  • Put host in maintenance mode
  • Shut Down
  • File request with storage administrator to make only boot LUN is visible to host as we are about to do some potentially damaging operations
  • Put in new HBA (QLA4050)
  • Boot to floppy diskette with QLA 4050 BIOS firmware updates
  • Upgrade HBA BIOS
  • iFlash
  • If the system detects a QLx40xx controller, it displays the following message:
  • QLx40xx Adapter found at I/O address: xxxxxxxx
  • You will need to enter the adapter address
  • Select “FB” to flash the BIOS. The iFlash program will write flash to the adapter using ql4022rm.BIN found in the same directory.
  • Reboot. Press CTRL+Q on the second (new) HBA to manage boot settings
  • Configure Host Adapter according to IP / initiator name
  • Configure iSCSI Target
    • You will need:
    • iSCSI name
    • IP Address
    • Subnet Mask
    • Default Gateway
    • iSCSI Target
    • IP Address:port
    • Target Name
    • Host Boot Settings = MANUAL
    • Exit and Reboot
  • Insert ESX 3.5 U4 CD (We don’t have PXE boot available yet)
  • Reboot system to boot from ESX 3.5 U4 CD
  • Install ESX 3.5 U4
  • type ‘esx ks=<url to kickstart file> ksdevice=eth0 method=cdrom
  • More on the kickstart file is here
  • Press enter. This installs ESX with all appropriate settings. Ask someone for the root password.
  • Log in as root
  • sh iscli-script.sh (from the kickstart)
  • sh huk-install.sh (from the kickstart)
  • Launch VirtualCenter
  • Disconnect the host from VirtualCenter (Right click, disconnect)
  • Reconnect the host to VirtualCenter (Right click, connect)
  • Enter maintenance mode (so no VMs are vMotioned on)
  • VMotion doesn’t get set up correctly via kickstart because the host does not have shared storage. Contact the SAN Administrator to make the other ESX LUNs  visible and rescan.
  • Delete the VMKernel Switch
  • Add the VMkernel switch (nic4 and nic5), enabling vmotion. <IP address> subnet <subnet> – no default GW since not routed
  • Configuration -> Memory -> Increase Service Console RAM to 800MB
  • Configure Storage Paths in Active/Passive
  • Reboot Host (to enact Service Console RAM changes)
  • Exit Maintenance Mode

vCenter Database Server

  • Manually backup VMware database
BACKUP DATABASE [VMWare] TO  DISK =  N'C:\Program Files\Microsoft SQL  Server\MSSQL.1\MSSQL\Backup\VMWare\VMWare_backup_preupgrade.bak' WITH NOFORMAT,  NOINIT,  NAME = N'VMWare-Full Database Backup', SKIP, NOREWIND, NOUNLOAD,  STATS  = 10
	GO
  • Manually backup UpdateManager
BACKUP DATABASE [UpdateManager] TO  DISK =  N'C:\Program Files\Microsoft SQL  Server\MSSQL.1\MSSQL\Backup\UpdateManager\UpdateManager_backup_preupgrade.bak'  WITH NOFORMAT, NOINIT,  NAME = N'UpdateManager-Full Database Backup', SKIP,  NOREWIND, NOUNLOAD,  STATS = 10
GO
  • Grant MSDB owner permissions for SQL user
USE [msdb]GO

EXEC sp_addrolemember  N'db_owner', N'USER'

GO

vCenter Server

  • Log in as local administrator
  • Back up the License File
    • copy "C:\Program Files\VMware\VMware License Server\Licenses\vmware.lic" \\server\share\vmware-license-backup.lic
  • Mount vCenter DVD ISO
  • Back up sysprep files for templates
    • copy C:\Documents and Settings\All Users\Application Data\VMware\VMware VirtualCenter\sysprep\.* \\server\share
  • Run vCenter Install
  • Reboot Server
  • Notify users of upgrades
  • Schedule times for VMware Tools Upgrades

vCenter Database Server

  • Revoke MSDB owner permissions for SQL user
USE [msdb]GO
	EXEC  sp_droprolemember N'db_owner', N'USER'
        GO

iSCSI SAN performance woes with VMware ESX 3.5

We filed support requests with IBM and VMware and went through a very lengthy process without any results.

Each of our hosts had the following iSCSI HBAs:

  • QLA4010
  • QLA4050C

A while ago we found out QLA4010 is not on the ESX 3.5 HCL even though it runs with a legacy driver.

As our virtual environment grew we noticed storage performance lagging. This was particularly evident with our Oracle 10G Database server running our staging instance of Banner Operational Data Store. We were seeing 1.1 MB/sec and slower for disk writes.

We opened a case with VMware support and later with IBM support.  We provided lots of data to VMware and IBM while no one mentioned the unsupported HBA. No one at IBM mentioned it either. VMware support referred us to KB# 1006821 to test virtual machine storage I/O performance.

We ran HD Speed in a new VM mimicing the setup using RDM and using a dedicated LUN. Similar results.
We ran HD Speed on the same RDM on a physical machine and got 45 MB/sec.

All of our hosts had an entry like this in the logs (grep -i abort /var/log/vmkernel* | less)

vmkernel.36:Mon DD HH:ii:ss vmkernel: 29:02:31:16.863 cpu3:1061)LinSCSI: 3201: Abort failed for cmd with serial=541442, status=bad0001, retval=bad0001

Hundreds, if not thousands of these iSCSI aborts in the log files. We punted to IBM and they gave us the recommendation of running Host Utilities Kit. This optimizes HBA settings specific to IBM storage systems.

My recommendation ended up being two fold: Upgrade the ESX hosts because we were on an old build (95xxx) and replace the QLA4010 with a QLA4050C on each host.

Now that our ESX upgrade is complete we are seeing much better performance from our iSCSI storage.

VMware Knowledge Resources for the Beginner VI Administrator

I have no problem making it clear I’m relatively new to the virtual world. That doesn’t mean you can’t learn fast.

Here are a few tools I’ve used to become a better VI Administrator:

  1. Training. Pros: Certified knowledge from the source. We hosted a VMware Jumpstart, and that training is without a doubt my catalyst into the rest of the virtual world. Training teaches you how to talk the talk so that other sources of knowledge are useful. Cons: Cost (not just upfront $$, but time cost).
  2. Web Sites to Search. Once you take on the new role, you need to do a considerable amount of reading. Pros: Low cost (aside from time) and can have a particularly high benefit. Cons: Lots of noise. Trouble distinguishing between good and bad sources.
    • VMTN
    • Google Reader and Planet V12n – I may have to write a separate post about my thoughts on V12n, but for the most part it is useful
    • VMware Knowledge Base
    • Google and FoxItReader – VMware’s website can be tedious to use, so using some operators in Google makes it a little more bearable for instance… site:vmware.com filetype:pdf. FoxItReader makes those PDF’s tolerable compared to Adobe Reader – and it has tabs!
    • Free VMworld Videos from 2007 which are still applicable today
  3. “Social” Media. I’m not including VMTN because I rarely post to it. The items below have been useful from an interactive standpoint — not just one sided conversations. There are similar pros and cons to this as websites — e.g., low cost vs. information overload and finding a reputable source.
    • #vmware IRC channel on freenode
    • Twitter – most of the bloggers from PlanetV12 also have twitter accounts, they post when products are released and can also provide quick @replies to your questions
  4. VMware Gold Support Pros: Very thorough, certified support. I am very happy with the support we’ve received from VMware. After I’ve exhausted Google, Social Media, etc., VMware Support has come through for us several times. Cons: Cost. Time being on hold and turnaround times.

RHEL P2V: Old Way and New Way

Most of this was taken from this site: http://conshell.net/wiki/index.php/Linux_P2V

Up front work

Determine exactly what you’re doing, and the resources you’ll need on the VMware side.

as root:

sfdisk -s
/dev/hda: 39070080
total: 39070080 blocks

To find the size in GB, divide by 1024 twice.
39070080/1024/1024 = 37.260 GB

Partition layout – know exactly the partitions, sizes and FS types. This can be gleaned from the output of `fdisk -l /dev/sda` and the content of /etc/fstab.

Disk types – IDE? SATA?

Downtime – Unfortunately, your source system must be down for the duration of the P2V process.

Have a copy of the system rescue CD ready. Boot the source system to it.

On the source system:
Back up the kernel’s ramdisk
cp /boot/initrd-`uname -r`.img /root/`uname -r`.bak
Make a new ramdisk with VMware-friendly RHEL scsi drivers
mkinitrd -v -f –with=mptscsih /boot/initrd-`uname -r`.img `uname -r`

This command will make SCSI drivers that VMware needs to use available to RHEL at boot time. This should not affect the source system.

md5sum /dev/sda – record the last six characters of the output. This generates a fingerprint used to verify integrity at the end.

On the target system:

Create a new VM
OS: Linux (RHEL 4/5)
Disk slightly larger than source system
NIC: upgrade to VMware tools
CDROM: System Rescue CD ISO
Boot the system, make sure the disks are recognized (sfdisk -s). Verify network is up with ifconfig eth0.

Disk Cloning

This part takes a while. Boot both systems to the system rescue CD. Try making a benchmark.

Make a 1 GB File on the source system, set the target to prepare for an incoming transmission:

Source: dd if=/dev/zero of=bigfile bs=1024 count=1048576
Target: nc -l -p 9001 | dd of=/dev/sda
Write down the start time.
Source: dd if=bigfile | nc 9001
Write down the finish time.
Estimate accordingly. (e.g., 20 gb would be at least 20 times longer)
For the “real” copy, remember you are copying a device to a device.

Target:

nc -l -p 9001 | dd of=/dev/sda
Source:

dd if=/dev/sda | nc 9001
There may be differing builds of nc, so your mileage may vary regarding the switches for ports. use nc –help to find out which version of the rescue CD. To gauge how long this would take you may want to try using pipe viewer.

One the source machine, if you need it to boot again you may need to run this command:
mv /root/`uname -r`.bak /boot/initrd-`uname -r`.img

New Way
VMware vCenter Converter 4.0 supports RHEL P2V. Win.

False Alarms with Virtual Center 2.5

Since I enabled alarms in VirtualCenter on 10/07/2008 we have encountered 14 seperate false alarms regarding host connectivity.

Here’s the alarm:

Target: hostname.goes.here

Old Status: Green
New Status: Red

Current value:
Host connection state – (State = Not responding)

Alarm: Host connection state
([Red State Is Equal To notResponding])

Description:
Alarm Host connection state on hostname.goes.here changed from Green to Red

Here’s what we went through with support.

  • Sending Diagnostics from VC
  • Found out we are running an unsupported HBA (QLA4010’s are not supported in ESX 3.5, but in ESX 3) … this was frustrating because we have seen that they will work with ESX 3.5 elsewhere from VMware
  • Advised to up the Service Console RAM to 800 MB from 272 MB

We haven’t been seeing false alarms since.

Our Storage Problem

We had some storage issues. We still have some storage issues, but it’s getting better. Here’s what we’ve fixed:

  • Overbooked storage
  • Storage Switch Failure Tolerance
  • Adapter Failure Tolerance

 

Overbooked Storage Units

The most immediate issue that could be addressed was the storage bloat. This did not require additional hardware. Previously, our storage allocated for VMware was as follows:

  • VMFSLun1 (600 GB)
  • VMFSLun2 (900 GB)

All 30 virtual machines the university ran (46 individual virtual hard disks) were running on two LUNs. Through collaboration with the SAN administrator, VMware’s Storage vMotion technology, and the SVMotion Plugin[3], the LUNs were balanced as much as possible without the addition of new hardware. The new storage is laid out as follows, per NetApp & VMware recommendations [1] [2]:

  • VMFSLun1 (300 GB – reallocated from old VMFSLun1)
  • VMFSLun2 (300 GB – reallocated from old VMFSLun1)
  • VMFSLun3 (300 GB – reallocated from old VMFSLun2)
  • VMFSLun4 (300 GB – reallocated from old VMFSLun2)
  • VMFSLun5 (300 GB – reallocated from old VMFSLun2)
  • Templates_and_ISOs (50 GB – new)
  • VMFSLun6 (300 GB – new)

We reorganized their existing allocated storage (1500 GB) into a more optimized layout. Additionally, a 50 GB LUN was added (Templates_and_ISOs) for organizational purposes. The need for additional storage capacity was identified and VMFSLun6 was created with existing iSCSI storage.

Switch and Adapter Fault Tolerance

During the procurement process, Information Systems staff planned to implement the new hardware. We then created a plan.

The existing storage setup had 3 hosts, 30 virtual machines (46 virtual disks) attached to two LUNs with one host based adapter (HBA) and one path. The filers are redundant in the sense that they are clustered for IP takeover, but there were two additional points of failure:

  • If a host’s HBA failed, the VMs would be unavailable and data would be lost.
  • If the switch the any of the cluster’s HBAs are connected to failed, all virtual machine disks would be unavailable and all virtual machines would likely incur data loss.

Figure 1.1 – Before the upgrade, HBA fault tolerance diagram

The new storage adapter fault tolerance plan had two major goals: tolerance of a switch failure and tolerance of a storage adapter failure. Planning to tolerate switch failure was straightforward: attach the additional HBA into another switch. Planning to tolerate HBA failure for a given LUN was handled with VMware’s Virtual Infrastructure Client.

Managing Paths within VI Client.

After we received the new HBAs, each host was brought down with no downtime. The new HBAs were placed in the hosts, and connected to the additional switches. The hosts were brought back up and primary paths were set in the VI Client per LUN.

Diagram of our Virtual Infrastructure showing HBA and switch fault tolerance

Storage Performance

Multiple paths to LUNs serves as an important point which will also help us lessen LUN contention and increase IO performance. Now that there are two available paths for each LUN, the “hot” paths can be evenly split between HBAs, increasing the total throughput per HBA. Previously, we had all LUN traffic travel through a single point (HBA 1), and each virtual disk per LUN had to be accommodated.

Our previous LUN / path layout

With the additional path along with the better balanced LUNs (see “Overbooked Storage”) the new structure has six LUNs, but only 3 being used by each HBA. This layout means less total traffic through each HBA per LUN.

 

Our Current Storage Layout, demonstrating multiple paths and lower LUN contention

 

[1] “SAN System Design and Deployment Guide”, VMware
http://www.vmware.com/resources/techresources/772

[2] “NetApp and VMware Virtual Infrastructure 3 Storage Best Practices”, NetApp; page 11
http://media.netapp.com/documents/tr-3428.pdf

[3] “VI Plug-in – SVMotion”, Schley Andrew Kutz
http://sourceforge.net/project/showfiles.php?group_id=228535

How We Found Our Virtual Networking Mojo

Switch and Network Adapter Fault Tolerance

Each of the VMware ESX hosts that we had were equipped with dual Network Adapters (NICs). With a typical physical server, two NICs could demonstrate fault tolerance. However, for ESX hosts the dual NIC is not fault tolerant. VMware ESX has three major types of traffic:

  1. VMkernel – used for vMotion, which allows host downtime without an interruption of service
  2. Service Console – initiates vMotion, serves as the primary venue of managing Virtual Machines
  3. VM Traffic – each individual virtual machine’s traffic, e.g., a web server’s incoming /outgoing requests

Our previous setup had significant points of failure:

  • If one NIC failed there would be complete service interruption.
    • If VMNIC0 failed, the interruption is slightly more controllable as it could be scheduled even though the virtual machines would not be manageable.
    • If VMNIC1 failed, all virtual machine traffic would be unexpectedly interrupted.
  • If the physical switch failed there would be an unscheduled complete service interruption.

Our old VMware Networking setup, no NIC/switch redundancy

 

The plan was to purchase an additional quad port NIC to remedy the NIC redundancy issue. With the additional 4 ports, the three types of traffic could have two dedicated ports. This setup is fault tolerant for NICs with each of the three traffic types. It’s taking the Cisco ESX Hosts with 4 NICs (page 62) to the next level. To fix the switch redundancy problem, the NICs are evenly split across two switches, per traffic type.

Networking setup demonstrating switch/NIC redundancy

 

Networking Performance

With the previous setup, we had an average of 7.5 VM’s going through one NIC per host. The NICs were being overused. Users were complaining of slow network performance. We implemented NIC teaming, while being afforded failover with favorable results.

cacti

Cacti Diagram showing before and after on an ESX host

In the above pic, a drastic decrease in utilization is shown after Week 32. This demonstrates the decrease in stress on the NIC that was being over utilized.